It has been many years since the establishment of Pakistan. But, Kashmir Issue remains the hottest issue in the region. India and Pakistani have fought three wars on this issue in 1948, 1965 and 1999. There are many wars but border skirmishes have also been too many. The reason behind this issue is the unresolved fate of 550 princely states. During partition they were given the chance to accede to either of the two states on the basis of geographical location and wishes of their people.
Pakistan controls 37% of territory while India controls 43% while the remaining 20% is controlled by china
Being the majority of population being Muslims, India and Pakistan wanted to be the part of Pakistan. But, it did not happen. Pakistan sent tribesmen and armed insurgents into Kashmir to take care of the matters. The state deserved accession to Pakistan based on its population and geographical location. Marajha of Kashmir, going against the will of people, sought Indian military assistance and signed the “Instrument of accession” with India.
On the intervention of United Nations war between Pakistan and India stopped. United Nations passed the resolution 47 21 April 1948. The ceasefire was signed between India and Pakistan on 1 January 1949. The UN commission for India and Pakistan made various visits to the valley and proposed a two way withdrawal from Kashmir, first for Pakistan and then India doing so. After the withdrawal the plebiscite was to hold.
Kashmir is strategically important as its borders with china and Afghanistan
The Role of World Powers
United States, China and Russia have maintained different viewpoints on these issues. But, their policies revolve around their own interests. China is a closer ally of Pakistan for a long time. But, its policy regarding Kashmir has passed through many phases. From 1949 to 1960 china maintained neutrality in the face of this issue and favored a solution through the peaceful settlements. However from 1960 to 1970 China supported Pakistan’s stance on the issue.
The UN has failed to organize an independent plebiscite in the state. It seems like a great debate in the wake of various problems.