Nuclear power is produced using Uranium metal, through energy emission nuclear reactor process. Uranium is a metal mined in various parts of the world. The first large-scale nuclear power station was established at Calder Hall in Cumbria, England, in 1956. Around all this some military ships and submarines also use nuclear power plants for engines and major operations
Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world’s energy needs, and produces huge amounts of energy from consumption of small amount atomic consumption and without the pollution that we have been suffering from burning fossil fuels.
Benefits of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy if we use for our benefits and survival of human kind can be a greatest resource. The major benefits of nuclear energy have been explained as under ;
1. Environment Cleaning
There is no emissions of greenhouse gases CO2 or other Nasty gases during nuclear energy production. While carbon dioxide is produced when we burn fossil fuel. This is one of the main gases contributing to the greenhouse effect and leading to atmospheric pollution. When any fossil fuel is burned, nitrogen oxides are also produced which cause smoke and pollutions. Nuclear fuel is pure and not having any sulpher impurities, it is not in contact with nitrogen in air, and it produces no smoke or exhaust.
2 . Cheap Resource of Energy
Nuclear energy is cheap resource after installation of it’s Reactors. Even when oil and gas prices are low, nuclear electric energy is more cheap than fossil fuel. In 1973, 1987 and 2000 oil crises with the price doubling and more in a few days or a few weeks causing damaging to production of many industries. Nuclear energy prices are so stable that a country (or an electric company) can
buy years of supply of uranium when the price is low and having ease in storing.
Uranium is plentiful – there’s enough to last most of a century if we use just the U-235 (0.7%). When we develop Fast Neutron Reactors, we will convert the U-238 (99.3%) to plutonium which is also a nuclear fuel; that means the uranium will last 50 times longer or more. Natural gas and oil reserves are estimated in decades; there’s lots of coal, but it’s nasty (see 1 above).
4. A safe Resource
Nuclear energy is safe for production and consumption establishments. All human activities are risky in petroleum production large amounts of energy: transportation, construction, mining and oil, etc. Even after 50 years of nuclear use, about one or two deaths per year have been due to nuclear energy or due to it’s reaction. On the other hand, we often hear about coal mine accidents with tens to hundreds dead in each accident. While in coal extraction only in china every years thousands of people are died in mines. The next generation of nuclear power stations will be safer and more
Efficient being developed in California and South Africa.
5. Backup for Fossils
Coal, oil and gas are precious feedstock materials used in chemical industries and all kinds of plastics start with these inputs, for example. So they should not be wasted for high energy consumption.
6. Low omission of Radiations in Atmosphere
We are living in constant bath of radiation from cosmic rays, , from the radioactive potassium and carbon-14 inside our body ,this accounts for about 2/3 of the dose we get. About 1/3 comes from medical treatment. Only about 1% comes from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons, There is less than one percent that comes from nuclear reactors.
7. Storage of Wastes
The radioactivity decays quickly. So they are stored on the site for a year or two until they are “cool” enough to be shipped and transferred to a reprocessing plant or for storage permanently. We cant say same about fossil fuels – their waste products are dumped into the atmosphere from exhaust pipe. The volume of nuclear waste produced in making enough electric energy to run all electric household for 30 years is so less that it would fit in a cigarette package.
Public is not well about the pros of nuclear energy and it’s best use for the energy survival, like the ghosts or ghosties or same like that flying things in the air at night, as well as radioactivity and radiation. This lack of knowledge is fed upon by to be called “merchants of fear.
The Nuclear Energy Uses
In the start of 20th century where many new inventions moved the world to an era of most advanced technology in the hands of human beings and which were called the future of human beings was in their approach, When many scientists said they have invented the all modern technologies for mankind use and world will be managed by the rules of Human themselves. Among these were many new innovations which brought more benefits to mankind then its hazardous effects or cons. The Nuclear energy is also among these innovations when scientists researched the Uranium atom and its major use in reactions causing billion tons of energy producing, So there first intention was to use for destruction purpose while used against the enemies, During the research on atomic nucleus scientists found that energy produced to the breaking of nuclear elements was so enough to be used for many years and could be used for large scale bombs and other destruction material used, However after the start of environmental protection laws and agencies struggling for human being survival , they found to use this invention for the benefits of humankind for the energy requirements which were increasing its consumption and fossils resources were getting limited in their availability.
What is Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is the energy produced from the nucleus of an atom. During the process mass is converted into energy. The relationship between mass and energy was given by Einstein’s formula,
Equation E = mc 2
Where E stands for energy, ‘m’ is the mass and ‘c’ is the constant speed of light.
In short nuclear energy is that energy obtained from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process known as nuclear fission process. There are three ways from which nuclear reaction is possible, including
But till now scientists have produced the energy experimenting on the first type- Fission process, however the radioactivity process has been checked on all above three and large scale energy production was examined.
Reasons for Use of Nuclear Energy
One utmost reason to use nuclear energy as a source of energy is because of its reliability. This energy doesn’t have to depend upon weather conditions, unpredictable costs or foreign supplies and shortages. It’s a reliable source of energy even during extreme weather changes and world downturn economies. The plants can run for about 500 to 700 days continuously without any fear of accidents before they are shut down for refueling.
The process to producing nuclear energy is one of the most cleanest producing no sulpher or carbon gases which are hazardous for us and our atmosphere. The conventional power plants produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulpher that threaten atmosphere by increasing global warming. Nuclear energy produced hence can be termed as ‘emission-free energy’. Another pros of nuclear energy is it requires little space for the production, thus promoting land and habitat preservation. There is absolutely no effect on land, water and air resources due to nuclear energy production process.
The water discharged from nuclear power plants is very safe and free from any radiation, sulpher and nitrogen wastes, meeting all regular standards of use; it helps in protecting aquatic life and preserving wildlife.
Reduce Dependency on Fossil fuels
The fossils deposits are emptying and so one of the major causes of using nuclear energy is to reduce dependency on fossils fuel, and protect them for other use.
Some Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
There are greater advantages to use nuclear energy for peaceful causes, such as for radiation techniques and medicinal use of isotopes. One major on-going advancement in it is Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) that helps in large scale food irrigation and biological control of pests. Other peaceful uses are:
One very common and beneficial use of nuclear energy is its use for human diseases treatment, for example cancer through radiotherapy. Also small use of radio isotopes is for diagnostic and research purposes. These techniques help to discover and check the level of toxic substances in food, water and air.
Food and Agriculture
The use of isotopes and radiation techniques in agriculture having been increasing by day. Around the globe, in many countries, Leading organizations have been working on the technology to increase agricultural production, improve food availability and quality, reduce production costs and minimize pollution of food crop. To conclude, nuclear energy has enormous benefits but, it’s up to humans to use it safely, and for peaceful purposes.
Environmental Effects of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy which is produced through uranium metal with tremendous energy to be used for the various production purposes of mankind. It’s no doubt nuclear energy If used for serving the human beings can bring much advantages for human beings. When we compare the solar energy and nuclear energy, nuclear energy is in fact best and same is case against solar energy, but still there are many hazardous attached with nuclear energy. The environmental impact of nuclear power results from nuclear fueling cycle, operations and effects of accidents such as Chernobyl disaster (1986) and Fukushima I nuclear accidents (2011). This year during the tsunami in Japan caused the problem of disposal of nuclear wastes and acid rain in Asian countries.
Nuclear Energy Wastes Streaming
While discussing about consequences of nuclear energy and its serving purpose for human kind, nuclear energy has at least four that contaminate and degrade land, including;
- They create spent nuclear fuel at reactor site, which includes plutonium wastes.
- They produce tailing at uranium mines and mills.
- During nuclear energy production nuclear reactors produce small amounts of radioactive isotopes.
- During accidents at nuclear reactors they can cause release of large quantities of radioactivity.
Nuclear energy Radioactivity wastes
Around 20-30 percent of high level wastes are produced per month from each nuclear reactor. In recent years spend nuclear fuel outside the US is reprocessed for useful components , leaving only a small amount of short half life waste to be stored. In US reprocessing is currently prohibited by executive order, and spent nuclear fuel is therefore stored in dry cask storage facilities.
Different methods have been suggested for final disposal of high level wastes, including deep burial of these in stable geographical structure, transmutation and removal to space, but so far no such methods have been implemented. The long term management options would require significant time to be achieved; interim storage is currently used for these storages adjustment. According to anti-nuclear agencies and organization and current public opinion, rendering nuclear waste harmless is not being done satisfactorily and it remains a hazard for anywhere between a few years to many thousands of years depending on nuclear isotopes. Same organizations lobby against processing the wastes to reduce its radioactivity and longevity, claiming that the method has proliferation concerns and is uneconomic to use. The time required for waste to be stored is controversial issue, because whether we should use the original ore or surrounding rock as a reference for safe levels.
Some amounts of low-level waste are produced through chemical and volume control system (CVCS). It includes gas, liquid, and solid waste produced through the process of purifying the water through evaporation. Liquid waste is reprocessed continuously, and gas waste is filtered and stored to allow decay, diluted, and then discharged. The rate at which this is allowed is regulated and studies must prove that such discharge does not violate dose limits to a member of the public.
Solid waste can be disposed of simply by storing where it will not be disturbed for a few years. The three low-level waste disposal sites in the United States are in South Carolina, Utah, and Washington. Solid wastes from the CVCS are combined with solid waste that comes from handling materials before it is buried for storage.
Radioactive gases and effluents
Most commercial used nuclear power plants release gaseous and liquid radiological effluents into our atmosphere as a byproduct of the Chemical Volume Control System, which are monitored in the US by the EPA and the NRC. Civilians living within 50 miles (80 km) of a nuclear power plant typically receive about 0.1 μSv per year. For comparison, the average person living at or above sea level receives at least 260 μSv from cosmic radiation and effects from these.
Toward end of operation cycle of 18 months mostly, for pressurized water reactor reduces the amount of boron and some of its irritated boron is discharged from plant into whatever body of water plant’s cooling water is drawn from. The maximum amount of radioactivity permitted in each volume of discharge is regulated. A leak of radioactive water at Vermont Yankee in 2010 in US, along with similar incidents at more than 20 other US nuclear plants in recent years, has kindled doubts about the reliability, durability, and maintenance of aging nuclear installations in the United States. Uranium mining can cause large amount of water to use for operation.
Nuclear Energy and major accidents from its production